Recommendations

Recommendations for vitamin B12, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. DRI is a term for a set of reference intakes that are used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): The average daily level of intake that is enough to meet the nutrient needs of nearly all (97% to 98%) healthy people. An RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence.

Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established when there is not enough scientific research evidence to develop an RDA. It is set at a level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition.

Dietary reference intakes for vitamin B12:

Infants (AI)

  • 0 to 6 months: 0.4 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
  • 7 to 12 months: 0.5 mcg/day

Children (RDA)

  • 1 to 3 years: 0.9 mcg/day
  • 4 to 8 years: 1.2 mcg/day
  • 9 to 13 years: 1.8 mcg/day

Adolescents and Adults (RDA)

  • Males and females age 14 and older: 2.4 mcg/day
  • Pregnant teens and women: 2.6 mcg/day
  • Breastfeeding teens and women: 2.8 mcg/day

The best way to meet your body’s vitamin B12 needs is to eat a wide variety of animal products.

Supplemental vitamin B12 can be found in the following:

  • Almost all multivitamins. Vitamin B12 is better absorbed by the body when it is taken along with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B6, along with magnesium.
  • A prescription form of vitamin B12 can be given by injection or as a nasal gel.
  • Vitamin B12 is also available in a form that dissolves under the tongue (sublingual).

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