Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP)

Infectious Diseases

Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP)

A respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) checks for pathogens in the respiratory tract. A pathogen is a virus, bacteria, or other organism that causes an illness. Your respiratory tract is made up of parts of the body involved in breathing. This includes your lungs, nose, and throat.

There are many types of viruses and bacteria that can infect the respiratory tract. Symptoms are often similar, but treatment can be very different. So it’s important to make the right diagnosis. Other viral and bacterial tests for respiratory infections are often limited to testing for one specific pathogen. Several samples may be needed. The process can be difficult and time consuming.

 

PRICE: $150.00

Test Details

A respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) checks for pathogens in the respiratory tract. A pathogen is a virus, bacteria, or other organism that causes an illness. Your respiratory tract is made up of parts of the body involved in breathing. This includes your lungs, nose, and throat.

There are many types of viruses and bacteria that can infect the respiratory tract. Symptoms are often similar, but treatment can be very different. So it’s important to make the right diagnosis. Other viral and bacterial tests for respiratory infections are often limited to testing for one specific pathogen. Several samples may be needed. The process can be difficult and time consuming.

An RPP panel only needs a single sample to run tests for a wide variety of viruses and bacteria. Results can be available in a few hours. Results from other types of respiratory tests can take a few days. Faster results may allow you to get started earlier on the right treatment.

1. Adenovirus 1 & 2

Adenovirus 1 and 2 are two different serotypes (types) of adenoviruses, a group of viruses that can cause various illnesses in humans and animals. Adenovirus 1 typically causes respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, while adenovirus 2 is associated with conjunctivitis (pink eye). Both can be spread through contact with respiratory secretions, contaminated objects, or food and water. The symptoms of adenovirus infections can range from mild to severe and can include fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

If a child is infected, treatment is supportive and is focused on relieving the symptoms associated with the infection. Because the infection is caused by a virus, antibiotics are not effective. Specific treatment for adenovirus infections will be determined by your child’s doctor based on:

  • Your child’s age, overall health, and medical history.
  • Extent of the condition.
  • Your child’s tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies.
  • Expectations for the course of the condition.
  • Your opinion or preference.

2. Human Coronavirus 229E

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a type of coronavirus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It was first identified in the 1970s and is one of the common human coronaviruses. HCoV-229E is typically associated with mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, and typically causes symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. HCoV-229E is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus is most commonly transmitted during the winter months and can be prevented by following good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

3. Human Coronavirus HKU1

Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is a type of coronavirus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It was first identified in 2005 and is one of the seven human coronaviruses known to cause illness. HCoV-HKU1 can cause symptoms ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, to more severe illnesses, including pneumonia. The symptoms of HCoV-HKU1 include runny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, body aches, and fatigue. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. HCoV-HKU1 is most commonly transmitted during the winter months and can be prevented by following good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

4. Human Coronavirus NL63

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a type of coronavirus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It was first identified in 2004 and is one of the seven human coronaviruses known to cause illness. HCoV-NL63 can cause symptoms ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, to more severe illnesses, including pneumonia. The symptoms of HCoV-NL63 include runny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, body aches, and fatigue. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. HCoV-NL63 is most commonly transmitted during the winter months and can be prevented by following good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

5. Human Coronavirus OC43

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a type of coronavirus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It was first identified in the 1960s and is one of the seven human coronaviruses known to cause illness. HCoV-OC43 can cause symptoms ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, to more severe illnesses, including pneumonia. The symptoms of HCoV-OC43 include runny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, body aches, and fatigue. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. HCoV-OC43 is most commonly transmitted during the winter months and can be prevented by following good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

6. Human Enterovirus D68

Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a type of enterovirus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It was first identified in the 1960s and is one of the many enteroviruses that can cause illness. EV-D68 can cause symptoms ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, to more severe illnesses, including pneumonia and muscle weakness. The symptoms of EV-D68 include runny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, body aches, and fatigue. In some cases, EV-D68 can cause more serious symptoms, such as difficulty breathing, and can be especially dangerous for children with asthma or other respiratory problems. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through close contact with contaminated surfaces. EV-D68 is most commonly transmitted during the summer and fall and can be prevented by following good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

7. Human Enterovirus (assay pan)

A human enterovirus assay (pan) is a laboratory test used to detect the presence of enteroviruses in a sample, such as a nasal swab sample. The test works by using a combination of techniques to identify the genetic material of the enterovirus in the sample. The assay can detect multiple types of enteroviruses, including human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), and is often referred to as a “pan-enterovirus” test. The results of the test can help diagnose the cause of a respiratory illness, and can inform decisions about treatment and disease management. However, it’s important to note that the test only detects the presence of enteroviruses and does not distinguish between different serotypes (types) of the virus, or provide information about the severity of the illness.

8. Influenza A/H1-2009

Influenza A/H1N1-2009 is a subtype of the influenza A virus that caused a global pandemic in 2009. It is sometimes referred to as “swine flu” due to its origin in pigs, although it is now considered a human strain of the virus. This strain of the virus caused a significant outbreak in 2009 and led to widespread illness and death. The symptoms of H1N1-2009 flu are similar to those of seasonal flu, and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, fatigue, and headache. In some cases, the virus can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. H1N1-2009 flu is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

9. Influenza A/H3

Influenza A/H3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus that can cause illness in humans. Influenza A viruses are constantly evolving and changing, and the H3 subtype is one of many subtypes that can circulate and cause illness in humans. The symptoms of H3 flu are similar to those of seasonal flu, and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, fatigue, and headache. In some cases, the virus can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. H3 flu is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. The specific strains of H3 that are circulating can vary from year to year, and it’s important for individuals to stay up to date on their flu vaccine to protect against the most common and potentially dangerous strains.

10. Influenza A

Influenza A is a type of influenza virus that can cause illness in humans and other animals. Influenza A viruses are constantly evolving and changing, and there are many different subtypes of the virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and others. The symptoms of influenza A are similar to those of seasonal flu, and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, fatigue, and headache. In some cases, the virus can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. Influenza A is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. It’s important for individuals to stay up to date on their flu vaccine to protect against the most common and potentially dangerous strains of the virus.

11. Influenza B

Influenza B is a type of influenza virus that can cause illness in humans. Like influenza A, influenza B viruses are constantly evolving and changing, and there are many different strains of the virus. The symptoms of influenza B are similar to those of seasonal flu and can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, fatigue, and headache. In some cases, the virus can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. Influenza B is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and can be prevented through vaccination and good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Unlike influenza A, there are only two main lineages of influenza B, known as B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. Vaccines for influenza are updated each year to include the most common and potentially dangerous strains of the virus, including both lineages of influenza B.

12. Haemophilus Influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae is a type of bacterium that can cause a range of illnesses in humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, and others. There are several different subtypes of H. influenzae, some of which are associated with more severe illnesses than others. H. influenzae is spread through respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus, and can be passed from person to person through coughing or sneezing. The symptoms of H. influenzae infection can vary depending on the specific illness, but can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and others. In severe cases, such as meningitis, symptoms can include neck stiffness, confusion, and sensitivity to light. H. influenzae infection can be treated with antibiotics, and there is also a vaccine available for some subtypes of the bacterium. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can help reduce the spread of H. influenzae.

13. Human Bocavirus

Human Bocavirus (HBoV) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in humans. HBoV is part of the Parvoviridae family, which also includes several other species of viruses that can cause illness in humans and other animals. The symptoms of HBoV infection can range from mild to severe, and can include fever, cough, runny nose, and diarrhea. In some cases, the virus can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. The exact way in which HBoV is transmitted from person to person is not well understood, but it is thought to be spread through respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus, as well as through close contact with contaminated surfaces. There is no specific treatment for HBoV infection, but good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

14. Human Herpesvirus 3

Human Herpesvirus 3, also known as Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), is a type of herpes virus that can cause two distinct illnesses in humans: chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster). Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness that usually occurs in children and is characterized by an itchy rash, fever, and other symptoms. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus can remain dormant in the body and later reactivate to cause shingles, which is a painful skin rash that can occur in people who have previously had chickenpox. The symptoms of shingles can include pain, itching, and a blistering rash that can last for several weeks.

VZV is primarily spread through respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus, and is highly contagious. The virus can be spread from person to person through direct contact with the rash or through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. A vaccine is available for VZV, which can prevent or reduce the severity of chickenpox, and antiviral medications can be used to treat shingles. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can also help reduce the spread of the virus.

15. Human Herpesvirus 4

Human Herpesvirus 4, also known as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), is a type of herpes virus that is extremely common and can cause a range of illnesses in humans, including infectious mononucleosis (mono), Burkitt’s lymphoma, and other types of cancers. EBV is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as kissing or sharing food and drinks, and can also be spread through respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus.

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as “mono,” is a common illness that is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. EBV can also cause more serious illnesses, such as Burkitt’s lymphoma, which is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, and other types of cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no specific treatment for EBV infection, but most people recover fully without any medical intervention. Antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of EBV infection. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have infectious mononucleosis, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

16. Human Herpisvirus 5

Human Herpesvirus 5, also known as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), is a type of herpes virus that is common in humans. Most people are exposed to CMV at some point in their lives and develop a mild, asymptomatic infection. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as newborns, elderly individuals, and people with AIDS, CMV can cause more serious illnesses, including pneumonia and encephalitis.

CMV is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as kissing or sharing food and drinks, and can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, and sexual contact. In pregnant women, CMV can be transmitted to the fetus and can cause serious birth defects, including hearing and vision loss.

There is no specific treatment for CMV infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of CMV infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have active CMV infections, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

17. Human Herpisvirus 6

Human Herpesvirus 6, also known as Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and Human Herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), is a type of herpes virus that can cause a range of illnesses in humans. HHV-6 is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as kissing or sharing food and drinks, and can also be spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.

HHV-6A and HHV-6B can cause a range of illnesses, including roseola, a common childhood illness that is characterized by a high fever and rash, and encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. HHV-6A and HHV-6B can also cause more serious illnesses, including meningitis, which is an inflammation of the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and myocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart muscle.

There is no specific treatment for HHV-6 infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of HHV-6 infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have active HHV-6 infections, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

18. Human Metapneumovirus

Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory illnesses in humans, particularly in children and the elderly. hMPV is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hMPV can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs. hMPV is one of the leading causes of hospitalization for young children with respiratory illness.

There is no specific treatment for hMPV infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hMPV infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

19. Human Parainfluenza Virus 1

Human Parainfluenza Virus 1 (hPIV-1) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory illnesses in humans, particularly in children and the elderly. hPIV-1 is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hPIV-1 can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hPIV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hPIV-1 infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

20. Human Parainfluenza Virus 2

Human Parainfluenza Virus 2 (hPIV-2) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory illnesses in humans, particularly in children and the elderly. hPIV-2 is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hPIV-2 can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hPIV-2 infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hPIV-2 infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

21. Human Parainfluenza Virus 3

Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 (hPIV-3) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory illnesses in humans, particularly in children and the elderly. hPIV-3 is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hPIV-3 can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hPIV-3 infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hPIV-3 infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

22. Human Parainfluenza Virus 4

Human Parainfluenza Virus 4 (hPIV-4) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory illnesses in humans, particularly in children and the elderly. hPIV-4 is primarily spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hPIV-4 can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hPIV-4 infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hPIV-4 infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

23. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus A

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus A (hRSV-A) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory infections in humans, particularly in young children and the elderly. hRSV-A is highly contagious and can be spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hRSV-A can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hRSV-A infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hRSV-A infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

24. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B (hRSV-B) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory infections in humans, particularly in young children and the elderly. hRSV-B is highly contagious and can be spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

hRSV-B can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including cold-like symptoms, such as cough, runny nose, and fever, as well as more severe illnesses, such as bronchiolitis, which is an inflammation of the small airways in the lungs, and pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs.

There is no specific treatment for hRSV-B infection, but antiviral medications can be used to treat severe or complicated cases of hRSV-B infection, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

25. Human Rhinovirus

Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is a type of virus that can cause respiratory infections in humans. HRV is highly contagious and can be spread through close personal contact, such as coughing or sneezing, and through contact with contaminated surfaces.

HRV can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including the common cold, which is characterized by symptoms such as runny nose, cough, and sore throat. HRV infections can also lead to more severe respiratory illnesses, such as asthma exacerbations, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, especially in people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific treatment for HRV infections, but over-the-counter medications can be used to relieve symptoms, such as pain relievers for headaches, decongestants for nasal congestion, and cough suppressants for cough. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close personal contact with people who have respiratory illnesses, can help reduce the spread of the virus.

26. Bordetella Pertussis

Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes whooping cough, also known as pertussis. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is spread through droplets produced by coughing or sneezing.

The disease typically starts with symptoms similar to a common cold, such as runny nose, low-grade fever, and mild cough. However, in a few days, the cough becomes more severe and is characterized by rapid coughing spells that end in a high-pitched “whoop” sound, especially in young children.

Pertussis can be treated with antibiotics, but it is most effective when treatment is started in the early stages of the disease. A vaccine is available to prevent pertussis, and is usually given as part of the routine childhood immunization schedule.

Untreated pertussis can lead to serious complications, particularly in young children, such as pneumonia, dehydration, and brain damage. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against pertussis and reduce its spread.

27. Bordetella Bronchiseptica

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause respiratory infections in a variety of animals, including dogs, cats, rabbits, and non-human primates. In animals, B. bronchiseptica can cause respiratory diseases such as kennel cough in dogs, feline bronchitis in cats, and respiratory disease in rabbits and non-human primates.

In humans, B. bronchiseptica can cause respiratory infections, but these are relatively rare. The bacterium can be transmitted from animals to humans, but human-to-human transmission is rare.

The symptoms of B. bronchiseptica infections in animals can include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and fever. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and in some cases, supportive care, such as fluid therapy.

In order to prevent B. bronchiseptica infections in animals, good hygiene practices should be followed, and vaccines are available for some species, such as dogs. For humans, regular hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected animals can help reduce the risk of infection.

28. Chlamydophila Pneumoniae

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause respiratory infections, including pneumonia, in humans. It is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

C. pneumoniae infections often cause mild symptoms similar to those of a cold or the flu, including cough, fever, fatigue, and body aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to pneumonia, which can be serious, especially in older adults, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma or emphysema.

Diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infections is typically done through a blood test, and treatment involves antibiotics.

To prevent C. pneumoniae infections, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Additionally, getting vaccinated against other types of pneumococcal bacteria can help reduce the risk of C. pneumoniae infections.

29. Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. K. pneumoniae is commonly found in the environment and can cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with underlying health conditions, older adults, and individuals taking certain medications that suppress the immune system.

The symptoms of K. pneumoniae infections vary depending on the type of infection, but can include fever, cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath in the case of pneumonia, and pain or burning during urination, frequent urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine in the case of urinary tract infections.

Treatment for K. pneumoniae infections typically involves antibiotics. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

To prevent K. pneumoniae infections, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected. Additionally, maintaining good overall health through proper diet and exercise, and seeking prompt medical attention if you have symptoms of an infection, can help reduce the risk of infection.

30. Legionella Pneumophila

Legionella pneumophila is a type of bacterium that can cause a serious type of pneumonia called Legionnaire’s disease. The bacterium is commonly found in natural water sources such as lakes and rivers, but can also be present in man-made water systems such as cooling towers, hot tubs, and air-conditioning systems.

People become infected with L. pneumophila by inhaling tiny droplets of contaminated water, typically in the form of mist or vapor. The bacterium can also cause a less severe illness called Pontiac fever, which produces flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache.

Diagnosis of Legionnaire’s disease is typically made through laboratory testing of respiratory secretions or blood. Treatment involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and fluid replacement, as needed.

To prevent L. pneumophila infections, it is important to maintain proper hygiene and disinfection of water systems, as well as to avoid exposure to contaminated water sources, particularly in enclosed spaces. People at higher risk, such as older adults and those with weakened immune systems, should take extra precautions to avoid exposure to contaminated water sources.

31. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a type of bacteria that can cause a respiratory infection known as mycoplasma pneumonia. This type of pneumonia is also commonly referred to as “walking pneumonia” because it can cause mild to moderate symptoms that are similar to those of a common cold or the flu.

Common symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia include cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and muscle aches. In some cases, the infection can also cause more severe symptoms, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and pneumonia.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is typically diagnosed through laboratory testing of respiratory secretions or blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as rest and fluid intake, to relieve symptoms.

To prevent mycoplasma pneumonia, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected. Additionally, getting vaccinated against pneumococcal disease, which is another type of bacterial pneumonia, can help reduce the risk of infection. It is also important to seek prompt medical attention if you have symptoms of a respiratory infection.

32. Staphylococcus Aureus

taphylococcus aureus is a type of bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and in the nasal passages of healthy individuals. It can cause a wide range of infections, including skin infections (such as boils, impetigo, and abscesses), food poisoning, and more serious infections, such as pneumonia, sepsis, and endocarditis.

Staphylococcus aureus can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or through contact with contaminated objects, such as towels, bandages, and athletic equipment.

Treatment of S. aureus infections depends on the severity and location of the infection, but typically involves antibiotics. In some cases, the bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which is a strain of the bacterium that is resistant to a class of antibiotics known as beta-lactams.

To prevent S. aureus infections, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and keeping cuts and abrasions clean and covered. If you have a S. aureus infection, it is important to follow your healthcare provider’s instructions for treatment and to avoid spreading the bacteria to others. Additionally, if you have a weakened immune system or have a chronic medical condition, it is important to take extra precautions to avoid exposure to the bacteria.

33. Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus, is a type of bacterium that can cause a range of illnesses, including pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infections, meningitis, and sepsis. These infections can range from mild to severe and can be life-threatening, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, young children, and individuals with chronic medical conditions.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is spread through respiratory droplets, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through direct contact with infected mucus or saliva.

Treatment of pneumococcal infections typically involves antibiotics, and in some cases, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary. Vaccination is also an important tool in preventing pneumococcal disease, and the pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as young children, the elderly, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

To prevent pneumococcal infections, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick. If you have symptoms of a pneumococcal infection, such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

A Respiratory Pathogen Panel is used to help diagnose:

Viral infections, such as:

  • Flu
  • Common cold
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This is a common and usually mild respiratory infection. But it can be dangerous to babies and the elderly.
  • Adenovirus infection. Adenoviruses cause many different types of infections. These include pneumonia and croup, an infection that causes hoarse, barking coughs.
  • COVID-19

Bacterial infections, such as:

  • Whooping cough
  • Bacterial pneumonia

You may need this test if you have symptoms of a respiratory infection and are at risk for complications. Most respiratory infections cause mild to moderate symptoms. But the infections can be serious or even life threatening to young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.

Symptoms of a respiratory infection include:

  • Coughing
  • Trouble breathing
  • Sore throat
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever

Your provider will take a sample for testing:

Nasopharyngeal swab:

  • You will tip your head back.
  • Your health care provider will insert a swab into your nostril until it reaches the upper part of your throat.
  • Your provider will rotate the swab and remove it.

You don’t need any special preparations for a respiratory pathogen panel.

The swab test may tickle your throat or cause you to cough.  These effects are temporary.

A NEGATIVE result may mean your symptoms were caused by a pathogen not included in the panel of tests. It may also mean you have a condition not caused by a virus or bacteria.

A POSITIVE result means a specific pathogen was found. It tells you which type of infection you have. If more than one part of the panel was positive, it means you may be infected with more than one pathogen. This is known as a co-infection.

Based on your results, your provider will recommend treatment and/or order more tests to help confirm your diagnosis and guide treatment.

If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

  • qPCR
  • Nasopharyngeal Swab
  • 24 – 72 hours