Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)

Infectious Diseases

About Test

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a group of infections that are spread primarily through sexual contact including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The contact is usually vaginal, oral, or anal sex, but sometimes they can spread through other intimate physical contact. This is because some STDs, like herpes and HPV, are spread by skin-to-skin contact.

Some of the most common STIs include Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Herpes, HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Trichomoniasis and others. These infections can cause serious health problems if not diagnosed and treated early, so it’s important to practice safe sex and get tested regularly.

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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a group of infections that are spread primarily through sexual contact including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The contact is usually vaginal, oral, or anal sex, but sometimes they can spread through other intimate physical contact. This is because some STDs, like herpes and HPV, are spread by skin-to-skin contact.

Some of the most common STIs include Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Herpes, HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Trichomoniasis and others. These infections can cause serious health problems if not diagnosed and treated early, so it’s important to practice safe sex and get tested regularly.

1. Atopobium Vaginae

Atopobium vaginae is a gram-negative bacterium that can be found in the vaginal microflora of women. It has been associated with bacterial vaginosis and other gynecological infections.

2. Bacteroides Fragilis

Bacteroides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found in the human gut microbiome. It is a part of the normal flora and generally considered commensal. However, in some cases it can cause infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, and has been associated with infections such as bacteremia, wound infections, and intra-abdominal abscesses.

3. Bacterial Vaginosis Associated Bacterium 2 (BVAB2)

Bacterial vaginosis associated bacterium 2 (BVAB2) is a newly recognized species of bacteria that has been implicated in the development of bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition in which the normal balance of vaginal bacteria is disrupted, leading to an overgrowth of harmful bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacteria. BVAB2 has been identified as a major contributor to the development of this condition, along with other bacteria such as Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. BVAB2 can be difficult to culture in the laboratory and its role in the development of bacterial vaginosis is not yet fully understood, but further research is ongoing to better understand its impact on women’s health.

4. Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It can cause a wide range of health problems, including urethritis in men and cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility in women. Chlamydia is spread through sexual contact and can also be passed from mother to baby during delivery. Most people infected with Chlamydia do not experience any symptoms, but if symptoms do occur, they can include discharge, pain or burning during urination, and pain in the lower abdomen. Treatment for Chlamydia is typically with antibiotics and it is important to identify and treat the infection as soon as possible to prevent serious long-term health problems.

5. Enterococcus Faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive bacterium that is commonly found in the human gut and is part of the normal intestinal flora. In some cases, however, it can cause infections outside of the gut, such as urinary tract infections, endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves), and bacteraemia (infection of the bloodstream). It is also an important cause of nosocomial (healthcare-associated) infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems. E. faecalis has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics, making treatment of infections caused by this bacterium challenging. To prevent the spread of drug-resistant strains of E. faecalis, infection control measures, such as proper hand hygiene, are important in healthcare settings.

6. Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms, including humans. It is part of the normal gut flora and usually harmless. However, some strains of E. coli can cause serious infections and illnesses, such as urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, and sepsis. These pathogenic strains of E. coli produce toxins that can cause damage to the gut and other tissues, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting. E. coli is spread through contaminated food and water, and through close contact with infected individuals. Effective treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains are resistant to multiple drugs. To prevent the spread of E. coli, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as frequent hand washing, and to properly prepare and store food.

7. Gardnerella Vaginalis

Gardnerella vaginalis is a gram-variable bacterium that has been implicated in the development of bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition in which the normal balance of vaginal bacteria is disrupted, leading to an overgrowth of harmful bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacteria. G. vaginalis has been identified as a major contributor to the development of this condition, along with other bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Bacterial vaginosis associated bacterium 2 (BVAB2). Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis can include discharge, itching, and a fishy odor. The condition is typically treated with antibiotics. It is important to identify and treat bacterial vaginosis as soon as possible to prevent serious long-term health problems.

8. Haemophilus Ducreyi

Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted infection chancroid. Chancroid is a painful genital ulcer disease that is primarily found in developing countries, although it still occurs in some developed countries. The ulcers are usually accompanied by tender inguinal lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes in the groin area). Chancroid is spread through sexual contact and can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. Treatment for chancroid typically involves antibiotics, and it is important to identify and treat the infection as soon as possible to prevent the spread of disease and potential long-term health problems.

9. Herpes Simplex 1

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a highly contagious virus that causes oral herpes, also known as cold sores. It is typically spread through close personal contact, such as kissing, or through sharing personal items contaminated with the virus, such as towels or eating utensils. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life, causing outbreaks of oral herpes. Outbreaks typically involve the formation of small, painful blisters or sores around the mouth, which can be accompanied by other symptoms such as itching, burning, or tingling. There is no cure for HSV-1, but antiviral medications can help to reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks. Good hygiene, such as avoiding close contact with others during outbreaks and not sharing personal items, can help to prevent the spread of the virus.

10. Herpes Simplex 2

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a highly contagious virus that causes genital herpes. It is primarily spread through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life, causing outbreaks of genital herpes. Outbreaks typically involve the formation of small, painful blisters or sores in the genital area, which can be accompanied by other symptoms such as itching, burning, or tingling. Most people infected with HSV-2 do not experience any symptoms, but those who do may have recurrent outbreaks. There is no cure for HSV-2, but antiviral medications can help to reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks. Good hygiene, such as avoiding close contact with others during outbreaks and using protection during sexual contact, can help to prevent the spread of the virus.

11. Lactobacillus Crispatus

Lactobacillus crispatus is a species of gram-positive bacteria that is commonly found in the human vagina and is part of the normal vaginal flora. This bacterium helps to maintain the acidic pH of the vagina, which helps to protect against the overgrowth of harmful bacteria. L. crispatus produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, which help to create an environment that is inhospitable to pathogens. In addition, L. crispatus has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help to reduce the risk of developing certain vaginal infections. An imbalance of the normal vaginal flora, including a decrease in the number of L. crispatus, can increase the risk of developing conditions such as bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections. Maintaining a healthy vaginal flora is important for overall reproductive and sexual health.

12. Lactobacillus Gasseri

Lactobacillus gasseri is a species of gram-positive bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut and is part of the normal gut flora. This bacterium helps to maintain a healthy gut microbiome by producing lactic acid, which helps to create an acidic environment that is inhospitable to harmful bacteria and pathogens. In addition, L. gasseri has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and to have a positive impact on the gut-brain axis, which can help to improve overall gut health and reduce the risk of certain diseases. L. gasseri has also been shown to have potential health benefits for weight management and improving insulin sensitivity. The presence of L. gasseri and other beneficial gut bacteria can be encouraged through a healthy diet and lifestyle, including the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods.

13. Lactobacillus Iners

Lactobacillus iners is a species of gram-positive bacteria that is commonly found in the human vagina and is part of the normal vaginal flora. This bacterium is considered to be one of the most prevalent lactobacillus species in the vagina and is thought to play a role in maintaining a healthy vaginal ecosystem. L. iners helps to maintain the acidic pH of the vagina, which helps to protect against the overgrowth of harmful bacteria. An imbalance of the normal vaginal flora, including a decrease in the number of L. iners, can increase the risk of developing conditions such as bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections. Maintaining a healthy vaginal flora is important for overall reproductive and sexual health. However, compared to other lactobacillus species, L. iners is less effective in preventing certain vaginal infections, and its ability to colonize the vagina can be affected by factors such as antibiotics, hormonal changes, and lifestyle factors.

14. Lactobacillus Jensenii

Lactobacillus jensenii is a species of gram-positive bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut and female genital tract. This bacterium is part of the normal gut and vaginal flora and helps to maintain a healthy microbial ecosystem by producing lactic acid, which helps to create an acidic environment that is inhospitable to harmful bacteria and pathogens. L. jensenii has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and to play a role in maintaining a healthy vaginal pH. An imbalance of the normal gut or vaginal flora, including a decrease in the number of L. jensenii, can increase the risk of developing conditions such as gastrointestinal distress and vaginal infections. Maintaining a healthy gut and vaginal flora can be encouraged through a healthy diet and lifestyle, including the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods.

15. Megasphaera 1

Megasphaera is a genus of bacteria that can cause infections in humans, particularly in the gut and the female genital tract. Megasphaera 1 is a specific species within this genus that has been found in human samples.

Infections caused by Megasphaera 1 can result in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension. The bacterium can also be a cause of bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that can cause symptoms such as discharge, itching, and odor.

Diagnosis of Megasphaera 1 infections typically involves laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of stool or vaginal discharge. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to maintain good hygiene and to avoid behaviors that can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the gut and the female genital tract, such as consuming contaminated food or water or using harsh soaps. If you suspect you may have an infection caused by Megasphaera 1, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease and to minimize the risk of complications.

16. Megasphaera 2

Megasphaera is a genus of bacteria that can cause infections in humans, particularly in the gut and the female genital tract. Megasphaera 2 is a specific species within this genus that has been found in human samples.

Infections caused by Megasphaera 2 can result in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension. The bacterium can also be a cause of bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that can cause symptoms such as discharge, itching, and odor.

Diagnosis of Megasphaera 2 infections typically involves laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of stool or vaginal discharge. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to maintain good hygiene and to avoid behaviors that can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the gut and the female genital tract, such as consuming contaminated food or water or using harsh soaps. If you suspect you may have an infection caused by Megasphaera 2, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease and to minimize the risk of complications.

17. Mobiluncus Curtisii

Mobiluncus curtisii is a species of bacteria that can cause infections in humans, particularly in the female genital tract. It is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina.

Bacterial vaginosis can cause symptoms such as discharge, itching, and odor. If left untreated, it can increase the risk of other infections and complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and preterm labor in pregnant women.

Diagnosis of Mobiluncus curtisii infections typically involves laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of vaginal discharge. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to maintain good hygiene and to avoid behaviors that can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the vagina, such as douching or using harsh soaps. If you suspect you may have bacterial vaginosis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease and to minimize the risk of complications.

18. Mobiluncus Mulieris

Mobiluncus mulieris is a species of bacteria that is associated with bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection that can cause symptoms such as discharge, itching, and odor.

Mobiluncus mulieris is typically diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of vaginal discharge. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to maintain good hygiene and to avoid behaviors that can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the vagina, such as douching or using harsh soaps. If you suspect you may have bacterial vaginosis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease and to minimize the risk of complications.

Mobiluncus mulieris is a curved, anaerobic bacteria from the vagina of women. Its cells are motile and rod-shaped, having multiple subpolar flagella and multilayered gram-variable cell walls. Its type strain is ATCC 35243. It is often associated with vaginal infections.

19. Mycoplasma Genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalium is a species of bacteria that can cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in humans. It is a type of mycoplasma, a type of bacterium that lacks a cell wall and is known for its ability to resist many antibiotics.

Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) in both men and women. It can also cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can lead to infertility if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium infections typically involves laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of discharge or urine. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to practice safe sex and to get tested regularly for STIs to reduce the risk of Mycoplasma genitalium infections. If you suspect you may have been exposed to Mycoplasma genitalium, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease.

Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, commonly known as Mgen) is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the mucous epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans. Medical reports published in 2007 and 2015 state that Mgen is becoming increasingly common. Resistance to multiple antibiotics is becoming prevalent, including to azithromycin, which until recently was the most reliable treatment. The bacteria was first isolated from the urogenital tract of humans in 1981, and was eventually identified as a new species of Mycoplasma in 1983. It can cause negative health effects in men and women. It also increases the risk factor for HIV spread with higher occurrences in those previously treated with the azithromycin antibiotics.

Specifically, it causes urethritis in both men and women, and also cervicitis and pelvic inflammation in women.

20. Mycoplasma Hominis

Mycoplasma hominis is a species of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. It is a type of mycoplasma, a type of bacterium that lacks a cell wall and is known for its ability to resist many antibiotics.

Mycoplasma hominis is commonly associated with genital and urinary tract infections, particularly in women. It can cause symptoms such as vaginal discharge, pain during urination, and pelvic pain. The bacterium can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the lungs and joints.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis infections typically involves laboratory tests, such as a culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, on a sample of discharge or urine. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

It is important to practice safe sex and to get tested regularly for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to reduce the risk of Mycoplasma hominis infections. If you suspect you may have been exposed to Mycoplasma hominis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease.

Mycoplasma hominis is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma. M. hominis has the ability to penetrate the interior of human cells. Along with ureaplasmas, mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms known.

They have no cell wall and therefore do not Gram stain.

Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and bacterial vaginosis. It is also associated with male infertility. This species causes a sexually transmitted disease. It is susceptible to the antibiotic clindamycin.

21. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterium that causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Gonorrhea is characterized by symptoms such as painful urination, discharge from the penis or vagina, and pain or swelling in the joints. If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to serious complications, including infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, and an increased risk of contracting or transmitting HIV.

Diagnosis of gonorrhea is typically made through a sample of discharge or urine, and the infection can be treated with antibiotics. However, the bacterium has developed resistance to many antibiotics over time, so it is important to choose the right medication to treat the infection.

It is important to practice safe sex and to get tested regularly for STIs to prevent the spread of gonorrhea and other infections. If you suspect you may have been exposed to gonorrhea, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural), is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879. It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.

22. Prevotella Bivia

Prevotella bivia is a species of bacteria that is commonly found in the human oral cavity and female genital tract. It is part of the normal human microbiome, but it can also cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Prevotella bivia has been associated with a range of infections, including endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus), periodontitis (gum disease), and bacterial vaginosis (a condition characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina). It has also been linked to a higher risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in pregnant women.

Treatment for Prevotella bivia infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health. Preventive measures such as practicing good oral hygiene, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals can help reduce the risk of Prevotella bivia infections.

Prevotella bivia is a species of bacteria in the genus Prevotella. It is gram-negative. It is one cause of pelvic inflammatory disease.

23. Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a species of bacteria that can cause a range of infections in humans. S. aureus is commonly found on the skin and in the nose, and can cause skin infections such as impetigo, boils, and cellulitis, as well as more serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and endocarditis (infection of the heart valve). S. aureus can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

S. aureus can become resistant to antibiotics, including methicillin, a type of penicillin, which is why it is often referred to as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat and may require the use of more powerful antibiotics.

Treatment for S. aureus infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health. Preventive measures such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and keeping wounds clean and covered can help reduce the risk of S. aureus infections.

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically shaped bacterium, a member of the Bacillota, and is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus usually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota, it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. S. aureus is one of the leading pathogens for deaths associated with antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Despite much research and development, no vaccine for S. aureus has been approved.

An estimated 20% to 30% of the human population are long-term carriers of S. aureus, which can be found as part of the normal skin flora, in the nostrils, and as a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract of females. S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo, boils, cellulitis, folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and sepsis. It is still one of the five most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and is often the cause of wound infections following surgery. Each year, around 500,000 hospital patients in the United States contract a staphylococcal infection, chiefly by S. aureus. Up to 50,000 deaths each year in the U.S. are linked to S. aureus infections.

24. Streptococcus Agalactiae

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a species of bacteria that can cause a range of infections in humans. GBS is a leading cause of infections in newborns and pregnant women, and can lead to conditions such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns, as well as urinary tract infections and chorioamnionitis (infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus) in pregnant women.

GBS is commonly found in the human gut and genital tract and can be transmitted to newborns during delivery. Pregnant women can be screened for GBS carriage in late pregnancy, and antibiotics can be given during labor to reduce the risk of transmission to the newborn.

Treatment for GBS infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health. Preventive measures such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated, and avoiding exposure to contaminated food and water can help reduce the risk of GBS infections.

25. Treponema Pallidum (Syphilis)

Treponema pallidum is a bacterium that causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Syphilis is characterized by the appearance of sores or ulcers (known as chancres) at the site of infection, followed by a skin rash and flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications, including damage to the heart, brain, and other organs.

Diagnosis of syphilis is typically made through a blood test or by analyzing a sample of the fluid from a chancre. Treatment for syphilis involves the use of antibiotics, typically penicillin. Early treatment can cure the infection and prevent the development of serious complications.

It is important to practice safe sex and to get tested regularly for STIs to prevent the spread of syphilis and other infections. If you suspect you may have been exposed to syphilis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent the progression of the disease.

26. Ureaplasma Urealyticum

Ureaplasma urealyticum is a species of bacteria that is commonly found in the human urogenital tract and is often considered a normal part of the human microbiome. However, in some cases, it can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Ureaplasma urealyticum infections can lead to conditions such as urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. It is also associated with complications in pregnancy, such as premature birth and low birth weight. Treatment for Ureaplasma urealyticum infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health. Preventive measures such as practicing safe sex and maintaining good hygiene can help reduce the risk of Ureaplasma urealyticum infections.

27. Candida Albicans

Candida albicans is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body and is usually harmless. However, under certain conditions, it can overgrow and cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Candida albicans is a common cause of infections such as thrush (oral yeast infection), vaginal yeast infections, and systemic infections. In severe cases, Candida albicans can cause life-threatening infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or with HIV/AIDS. Treatment for Candida albicans infections typically involves the use of antifungal medications. It is important to maintain good hygiene and a healthy immune system to prevent overgrowth of Candida albicans and the development of infections.

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora. It can also survive outside the human body. It is detected in the gastrointestinal tract and mouth in 40–60% of healthy adults. It is usually a commensal organism, but it can become pathogenic in immunocompromised individuals under a variety of conditions. It is one of the few species of the genus Candida that causes the human infection candidiasis, which results from an overgrowth of the fungus. Candidiasis is, for example, often observed in HIV-infected patients. C. albicans is the most common fungal species isolated from biofilms either formed on (permanent) implanted medical devices or on human tissue.

A mortality rate of 40% has been reported for patients with systemic candidiasis due to C. albicans. By one estimate, invasive candidiasis contracted in a hospital causes 2,800 to 11,200 deaths yearly in the US.

28. Candida Dubliniensis

Candida dubliniensis is a species of yeast that is closely related to Candida albicans and is commonly found in the human oral cavity and genital tract. It can cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, and can lead to conditions such as thrush, genital yeast infections, and systemic infections. Candida dubliniensis is considered to be less virulent than Candida albicans, but it can still cause infections and may be more resistant to some antifungal drugs. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, but the choice of medication may depend on the severity of the infection and the patient’s overall health.

Candida dubliniensis is a fungal opportunistic pathogen originally isolated from AIDS patients. It is also occasionally isolated from immunocompetent individuals. It is of the genus Candida, very closely related to Candida albicans but forming a distinct phylogenetic cluster in DNA fingerprinting. It is most commonly isolated from oral cavities, and is also occasionally found in other anatomical sites.

29. Candida Glabrata

Candida glabrata is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body and can cause infections. It is an opportunistic pathogen and can cause a range of infections, including thrush, vaginal yeast infections, and systemic infections. Candida glabrata infections are typically treated with antifungal medications, but they may be more difficult to treat than infections caused by other species of Candida due to its natural resistance to some antifungal drugs. Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, are at higher risk of developing Candida glabrata infections.

Candida glabrata is a species of haploid yeast of the genus Candida, previously known as Torulopsis glabrata. Despite the fact that no sexual life cycle has been documented for this species, C. glabrata strains of both mating types are commonly found. C. glabrata is generally a commensal of human mucosal tissues, but in today’s era of wider human immunodeficiency from various causes (for example, therapeutic immunomodulation, longer survival with various comorbidities such as diabetes, and HIV infection), C. glabrata is often the second or third most common cause of candidiasis as an opportunistic pathogen. Infections caused by C. glabrata can affect the urogenital tract or even cause systemic infections by entrance of the fungal cells in the bloodstream (Candidemia), especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients.

30. Candida Krusei

Candida krusei is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the environment and can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. It is an opportunistic pathogen and can cause a range of infections, including thrush, vaginal yeast infections, and systemic infections. Treatment for Candida krusei infections typically involves the use of antifungal medications.

Candida krusei is a budding yeast (a species of fungus) involved in chocolate production. Candida krusei is an emerging fungal nosocomial pathogen primarily found in the immunocompromised and those with hematological malignancies. It has natural resistance to fluconazole, a standard antifungal agent. It is most often found in patients who have had prior fluconazole exposure, sparking debate and conflicting evidence as to whether fluconazole should be used prophylactically. Mortality due to C. krusei fungemia is much higher than the more common C. albicans. Other Candida species that also fit this profile are C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. guillermondii and C. rugosa. Candida krusei is the anamorph name; the teleomorph name for the same organism is Pichia kudriavzevii. The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) and the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) have proposed revising the standard name to Pichia kudriavzevii in 2021.

Candida krusei can be successfully treated with voriconazole, amphotericin B, and echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin, and anidulafungin).

31. Candida Lusitaniae

Candida lusitaniae is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.

Candida lusitaniae was first identified as a human pathogen in 1979.

Candida lusitaniae was initially described as a rare cause of fungemia, with fewer than 30 cases reported between 1979 and 1990. However, there has been a marked increase in the number of recognized cases of candidemia due to this organism in the last two decades. Bone marrow transplantation and high-dose cytoreductive chemotherapy have both been identified as risk factors for infections with this organism. These patients are often neutropenic for extended periods of time, leaving them susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections, including Candidal infections. Some investigators have theorized that the widespread use of Amphotericin B empiric antifungal therapy selects for infections with Candida lusitaniae.

32. Candida Parapsilosis

Candida parapsilosis is a fungal species of yeast that has become a significant cause of sepsis and of wound and tissue infections in immunocompromised people. Unlike Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis is not an obligate human pathogen, having been isolated from nonhuman sources such as domestic animals, insects and soil. C. parapsilosis is also a normal human commensal and it is one of the fungi most frequently isolated from human hands. There are several risk factors that can contribute to C. parapsilosis colonization. Immunocompromised individuals and surgical patients, particularly those undergoing surgery of the gastrointestinal tract, are at high risk for infection with C. parapsilosis. There is currently no consensus on the treatment of invasive candidiasis caused by C. parapsilosis, although the therapeutic approach typically includes the removal of foreign bodies such as implanted prostheses and the administration of systemic antifungal therapy. Amphotericin B and Fluconazole are often used in the treatment of C. parapsilosis infection.

33. Candida Tropicalis

Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. It is a common pathogen in neutropenic hosts, in whom it may spread through the bloodstream to peripheral organs. For invasive disease, treatments include amphotericin B, echinocandins, or extended-spectrum triazole antifungals.

34. Trichomonas Vaginalis

Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite and the causative agent of a sexually transmitted disease called trichomoniasis. It is the most common pathogenic protozoan that infects humans in industrialized countries. Infection rates in men and women are similar but women are usually symptomatic, while infections in men are usually asymptomatic. Transmission usually occurs via direct, skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual, most often through vaginal intercourse.

Sexually active people can get trich by having sex without a condom with a partner who has trich.

In women, the infection is most commonly found in the lower genital tract (vulva, vagina, cervix, or urethra). In men, the infection is most commonly found inside the penis (urethra). During sex, the parasite usually spreads from a penis to a vagina, or from a vagina to a penis. It can also spread from a vagina to another vagina.

It is not common for the parasite to infect other body parts, like the hands, mouth, or anus. It is unclear why some people with the infection get symptoms while others do not. It probably depends on factors like a person’s age and overall health. People with trich can pass the infection to others, even if they do not have symptoms.

Men with trich may notice:

Itching or irritation inside the penis;
Burning after peeing or ejaculating; and
Discharge from the penis.
Women with trich may notice:

Itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals;
Discomfort when peeing; and
A clear, white, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge (i.e., thin discharge or increased volume) with a fishy smell.

Trich is the most common curable STD. A healthcare provider can treat the infection with medication (pills) taken by mouth. This treatment is also safe for pregnant people.

If you receive and complete treatment for trich, you can still get it again. Reinfection occurs in about 1 in 5 people within 3 months after receiving treatment. This can happen if you have sex without a condom with a person who has trich. To avoid reinfection, your sex partners should receive treatment at the same time.

You should not have sex again until you and your sex partner(s) complete treatment. You should receive testing again about three months after your treatment, even if your sex partner(s) received treatment.

STIs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

Most STIs affect both men and women, but in many cases the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a pregnant woman has an STI, it can cause serious health problems for the baby.

The symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) can vary greatly and some people may not show any symptoms at all. Some common symptoms include:

  • Itching and redness in the genital area
  • Abnormal vaginal odor
  • Anal itching, soreness, or bleeding
  • Unusual discharge from the penis or vagina
  • Sores or warts on the genital area
  • Blisters or sores in or around the mouth
  • Painful or frequent urination
  • Pain during sex
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever

It’s important to note that many STIs can be asymptomatic and only detected through testing. If you have concerns about possible STI exposure or symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can affect various parts of the body including the genital, urinary, and reproductive systems. Some common organs affected by STIs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, penis, testicles, urethra, anus, and throat. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of STI but may include pain or burning during urination, discharge from the genital area, itching or sores, rashes, abdominal pain, and flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, STIs can lead to serious health problems, including infertility, chronic pain, and in some cases, even death.

Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) can be diagnosed through physical exams, blood tests, urine tests, or taking samples from affected areas of the body (such as discharge or sores). It’s important to get tested if you think you may have been exposed to an STD, as some STDs can have serious health consequences if left untreated.

The treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) depends on the specific type of infection. Some STIs usually those caused by bacteria or parasites can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungals.  There is no cure for STIs caused by viruses, but medicines can often help with the symptoms and lower your risk of spreading the infection.

In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as using condoms during sexual activity, may also help reduce the risk of STI transmission and complications. It is important to get tested and receive a proper diagnosis from a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for your specific condition.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading STIs. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms. The most reliable way to avoid infection is to not have anal, vaginal, or oral sex.

  • qPCR
  • Vaginal Swab
  • Urethal Swab (male)
  • Urine
  • 24 – 72 hours