Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Infectious Diseases

About Test

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has since become a global pandemic.

Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe and can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, body aches, fatigue, and loss of taste or smell. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and death.

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Test Details

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects any part of the urinary tract, which includes the bladder, ureters, kidneys, and urethra. UTIs are most commonly caused by bacteria, although in rare cases they can be caused by viruses or fungi.

The most common symptoms of a UTI include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, a burning sensation when urinating, passing frequent, small amounts of urine, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and pain or pressure in the lower abdomen or back.

Diagnosis of a UTI is typically done through a physical exam and laboratory testing of a urine sample. Treatment for UTIs typically involves antibiotics, and most UTIs can be treated successfully with a course of antibiotics.

To prevent UTIs, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as wiping front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and regularly cleaning the genital area. Drinking plenty of water and avoiding irritating feminine products can also help reduce the risk of UTIs. If you have symptoms of a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

1. Acinetobacter Baumannii

Acinetobacter baumannii is a type of bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and wound infections. It is a gram-negative bacterium that is often found in hospital environments and is considered a multidrug-resistant organism, meaning that it is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics.

A. baumannii infections are a concern in healthcare settings because of the risk of transmission to patients, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Treatment for infections caused by A. baumannii can be challenging due to its resistance to many antibiotics, and often requires the use of combination therapy or specialized antibiotics.

Prevention of A. baumannii infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with an A. baumannii infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

2. Citrobacter Freundii

Citrobacter freundii is a type of bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and wound infections. It is a gram-negative bacterium that is often found in the gastrointestinal tract and is commonly associated with nosocomial infections (infections acquired in a healthcare setting).

C. freundii can be resistant to certain antibiotics, particularly when acquired in a healthcare setting. Treatment for infections caused by C. freundii typically involves antibiotics, and the choice of antibiotic will depend on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the strain of bacteria causing the infection.

Prevention of C. freundii infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with a C. freundii infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

3. Enterobacter Aerogenes

Enterobacter aerogenes is a type of bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, and wound infections. It is a gram-negative bacterium that is often found in the gastrointestinal tract and is commonly associated with nosocomial infections (infections acquired in a healthcare setting).

E. aerogenes can be resistant to certain antibiotics, particularly when acquired in a healthcare setting. Treatment for infections caused by E. aerogenes typically involves antibiotics, and the choice of antibiotic will depend on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the strain of bacteria causing the infection.

Prevention of E. aerogenes infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with an E. aerogenes infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

4. Enterobacter Cloacae

Enterobacter cloacae is a type of bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, and wound infections. It is a gram-negative bacterium that is often found in the gastrointestinal tract and is commonly associated with nosocomial infections (infections acquired in a healthcare setting).

E. cloacae can be resistant to certain antibiotics, particularly when acquired in a healthcare setting. Treatment for infections caused by E. cloacae typically involves antibiotics, and the choice of antibiotic will depend on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the strain of bacteria causing the infection.

Prevention of E. cloacae infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with an E. cloacae infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

5. Enterococcus Faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis is a type of bacteria commonly found in the human gut. It is part of the normal flora and usually does not cause harm. However, in some cases, E. faecalis can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when it spreads from the gut to other parts of the body, such as the urinary tract, blood, or wounds.

Urinary tract infections caused by E. faecalis can range from mild to severe, and treatment typically involves antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern in the treatment of E. faecalis infections, and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of E. faecalis infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with an E. faecalis infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

6. Enterococcus Faecium

Enterococcus faecium is a type of bacteria commonly found in the human gut and in various environmental sources. It is part of the normal gut flora and usually does not cause harm. However, in some cases, E. faecium can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when it spreads from the gut to other parts of the body, such as the urinary tract, blood, or wounds.

E. faecium is known to cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infections), and endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart). Treatment of E. faecium infections typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of E. faecium infections involves strict infection control measures, including hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and appropriate use of antibiotics. If you have been in contact with someone with an E. faecium infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

7. Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria commonly found in the human gut. It is part of the normal gut flora and usually does not cause harm. However, certain strains of E. coli can cause infections, particularly when they spread from the gut to other parts of the body.

E. coli can cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, and bloodstream infections. Symptoms of an E. coli infection may include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody), fever, and nausea. Some strains of E. coli produce a toxin that can lead to severe illness, such as Hemorrhagic Colitis (HC) and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS).

Treatment of E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection. Prevention of E. coli infections involves good hygiene practices, including washing hands regularly and thoroughly cooking meat, especially ground beef. If you have been in contact with someone with an E. coli infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

8. Klebsiella Oxytoca

Klebsiella oxytoca is a type of bacterium that is found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gut. In some cases, K. oxytoca can cause infections in humans, particularly in people with weakened immune systems.

K. oxytoca infections can affect various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, respiratory tract, skin, and wounds. Symptoms of a K. oxytoca infection may vary depending on the location of the infection and can include fever, abdominal pain, cough, and skin lesions.

Treatment for K. oxytoca infections typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection. Prevention of K. oxytoca infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and caring for wounds. If you have been in contact with someone with a K. oxytoca infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

9. Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a type of bacterium that can cause infections in humans. It is often found in the environment, including soil, water, and the human gut, and can cause various types of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. In some cases, K. pneumoniae infections can also cause infections in the bloodstream, which can be serious and potentially life-threatening.

Symptoms of a K. pneumoniae infection can vary depending on the type of infection and can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and skin lesions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of K. pneumoniae infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and caring for wounds. If you have been in contact with someone with a K. pneumoniae infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

10. Morganella Morganii

Morganella morganii is a type of bacterium that can cause infections in humans. It is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water, and can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (infection of the bloodstream).

Symptoms of a M. morganii infection can vary depending on the type of infection and can include fever, chills, pain or burning during urination, and redness and swelling at the site of a wound infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of M. morganii infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and caring for wounds. If you have been in contact with someone with a M. morganii infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

11. Proteus Mirabilis

Proteus mirabilis is a type of bacterium that can cause a variety of infections in humans, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (infection of the bloodstream). P. mirabilis is commonly found in the human gut and in the environment, including soil and water.

Symptoms of a P. mirabilis infection can vary depending on the type of infection, but can include pain or burning during urination, fever, chills, and redness and swelling at the site of a wound infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of P. mirabilis infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and caring for wounds. If you have been in contact with someone with a P. mirabilis infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

12. Proteus Vulgaris

Proteus vulgaris is a type of bacterium that can cause a variety of infections in humans, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (infection of the bloodstream). P. vulgaris is commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and the human gut.

Symptoms of a P. vulgaris infection can vary depending on the type of infection, but can include pain or burning during urination, fever, chills, and redness and swelling at the site of a wound infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but resistance to antibiotics is a growing concern and the choice of antibiotics will depend on the susceptibility of the specific strain causing the infection.

Prevention of P. vulgaris infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and properly cleaning and caring for wounds. If you have been in contact with someone with a P. vulgaris infection or have symptoms of an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

13. Providencia Stuartii

Providencia stuartii is a gram-negative bacterium that is often found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It is a rare cause of urinary tract infections, but can also cause infections in other parts of the body, including the bloodstream, skin, and respiratory tract. Treatment for P. stuartii infections typically involves antibiotics, but some strains have become resistant to multiple antibiotics and can be difficult to treat.

14. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a type of Gram-negative bacteria that is commonly found in soil, water, and other moist environments. It can cause a range of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and wound infections, especially in people with weakened immune systems. P. aeruginosa is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics, which makes it a challenging pathogen to treat. Antibiotic therapy and other treatments, such as removal of a foreign body or drainage of an infected area, may be used to treat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

15. Staphylococcus Saprophyticus

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a type of Gram-positive bacteria that is commonly found in the human urinary tract. It can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs), particularly in young, sexually active women. Symptoms of UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus may include pain or burning during urination, frequent urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus can be treated with antibiotics, and it is important to complete the full course of treatment to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. People who are prone to UTIs may benefit from preventive measures, such as wiping front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and drinking plenty of water to flush out the urinary tract.

16. Streptococcus Agalactiae

Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a bacterium that is a common cause of infections in newborns, as well as in adults with weakened immune systems. It can cause sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Pregnant women can carry the bacteria and transmit it to their newborns during delivery, which can lead to serious infections in the baby. GBS can be treated with antibiotics, but some strains have become resistant to some of the drugs that are typically used.

17. Candida Albicans

Candida albicans is a type of yeast that is a common cause of fungal infections (candidiasis) in humans. These infections can occur in various parts of the body including the mouth, throat, genital area, and bloodstream. Candida albicans infections can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antifungal medications.

  • Frequent urge to urinate, but not much urine comes out.
  • Burning, stinging or pain with urination.
  • Urine that smells bad or looks dark, cloudy, or red.
  • Pain or pressure in the lower back or sides.
  • Tiredness, fever, and chills.
  • Heavy feeling in the lower belly.
  • Pelvic pain in women, rectal pain in men.
  • Waking in the night to urinate.
  • Feeling generally unwell.
  • New onset or worsening of pre-existing confusion /agitation.
  • Diabetes.
  • Constipation.
  • Dementia.
  • Kidney stones or any other condition that obstructs or blocks your urinary tract.
  • A weakened immune system eg. from chemotherapy or HIV.
  • A urinary catheter which is a tube inserted into your bladder to drain away the urine.
  • Obesity.
  • Pregnant women are at increased risk for kidney infections.
  • Some women develop urinary symptoms after sex because of bacteria entering the urethra.
  • After menopause, women are more likely to suffer from bladder infections because low estrogen levels.
  • Men are much less likely to suffer from UTIs, but infection can occur if an enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination.
  • Kidneys – Collect waste from blood to make urine.
  • Ureters – Move urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Bladder (common) – Stores urine.
  • Urethra (common) – The tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.

UTIs are treated and cured with antibiotics. Always finish antibiotic treatment.  If treated quickly, UTIs usually do not cause serious problems.  You may need longer treatment or a different antibiotic if you:

  • Are pregnant.
  • Have frequent UTIs.
  • Have diabetes.
  • Have a UTI that has spread to your kidneys.
  • 24 – 72 hours